When you’re young, your eye lens acts like a camera: it’s able to change shape and focus so you have a sharp image of things nearby or at distance. But between the ages of 40 and 50 the lens becomes less elastic and are less able to make adjustments. The eye then has a fixed focal length and focusing, particularly close up, becomes difficult.
This ageing process, called presbyopia, happens to us all and cannot be prevented. But if you have cataract surgery, it is possible to request intraocular lenses that correct presbyopia. These go inside your eye to replace your lenses. On the plus side, computer and cellphone screens use high-contrast text, which is easier to read than a book without glasses.